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EU-US Safe Harbor decision ruled invalid
The Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) has today stated that the Safe Harbor framework is invalid. This bold decision is likely to have immediate and serious implications for EU businesses that share personal data with the US.
It is a fundamental right of the European Union that individuals have the right to respect for private life (Article 7), the right to protection of personal data (Article 8) and right to an effective remedy and fair trial (Article 47). As part of that protection, EU data protection laws prohibit the transfer of personal data out of the EEA unless that country offers an “adequate” level of data protection through its domestic law. As a country, the US does not meet the EU adequacy requirement and therefore EU businesses cannot legally transfer personal data to the US. However in 2000, the European Commission decided that certain US businesses that self-certify their adherence to the Safe Harbor principles offer a suitable level of protection for European personal data (Decision 2000/520).
However following Edward Snowden's revelations in 2013 about US National Security Agency surveillance of data held by Safe Harbor certified companies, Safe Harbor's credibility was significantly undermined. Despite criticisms from the European Commission and the European Parliament that Safe Harbor does not provide adequate protection, the Safe Harbor scheme was not formally retracted; instead the European Commission has for several years been negotiating a Safe Harbor reform package with the US Department of Commerce.
Max Schrems and Facebook
The judgment delivered today relates to an Austrian student and privacy activist, Max Schrems. Schrems complained to the Irish Data Protection Commissioner that the Safe Harbor scheme did not protect EU citizens against mass surveillance of their data held by US companies certified as Safe Harbor compliant. His particular complaint related to the transfer of his personal data to the US by Facebook’s Irish subsidiary to servers in the US that were Safe Harbor certified. The Irish Data Protection Commissioner did not investigate the complaint because the European Commission had declared that Safe Harbor was a legitimate way of transferring personal data to the US in compliance with data protection laws.
Schrems did not stop there – he contested this decision of the Irish Data Protection Commissioner and the Irish High Court referred the matter to the CJEU. In particular the CJEU was asked to clarify whether national data protection authorities are bound by decisions of the European Commission.
Last week Advocate General Yves Bot stated that Safe Harbor is an invalid way of sharing personal data. He stated that US authorities have been accessing EU citizens’ data held by Safe Harbor companies in the “course of mass and indiscriminate surveillance” and EU citizens have no effective judicial redress. Additionally the Advocat General has stated that Safe Harbor does not contain enough safeguards to protect EU citizens’ fundamental right of data protection. While the opinion of the Advocate General is not binding on the CJEU, it appears that in this instance they have decided to follow him.
The CJEU’s ruling makes it clear that data protection authorities are required to examine any claim that the transfer of personal data out of the EEA is not in compliance with EU law “with complete independence” regardless of any decision by the European Commission. However only the CJEU can invalidate a decision of the European Commission. The CJEU went on to state that national security, public interest and law enforcement requirements in the US prevail over Safe Harbor principles, so that US companies are bound to disregard Safe Harbor when they conflict with such requirements. Thus Safe Harbor enables interference by US public authorities with the fundamental rights of EU citizens. Additionally access by US authorities to personal data of EU citizens on a “generalised basis” further compromises the fundamental right to respect for private life. Also the lack of legal remedies available to individuals impinges on the individual’s fundamental right to effective judicial protection. Therefore the CJEU concluded that Safe Harbor is invalid. The Irish Data Protection Authority must now examine Schrems’ case and determine whether Facebook’s transfer of personal data to the US affords an adequate level of protection.
What is the impact of this decision?
Without doubt, the companies that will feel the greatest impact from this decision are EU businesses that rely on Safe Harbor to transfer personal data to the US for processing. These businesses are likely to find that continuing to rely on Safe Harbor will likely mean that they will be in breach of EU data protection laws. Therefore it would be prudent for such companies to immediately review their existing data transfer arrangements with the US and consider what alternate solutions for sharing personal data with the US can be put in place.
There will no doubt be significant impacts for US-based companies, in particular large Cloud and IT service providers, who will be facing concerns (and likely contract amendments) from their European customers. They will be preparing to address those concerns and assist their customers.
What are the alternative options?
- Model clauses. In the short term, model clauses are a sensible option. Model clauses are a set of standard contractual clauses to be entered into by an EU data exporter and the US data importer. As model clauses have been approved by the European Commission, they cannot be amended or negotiated. However model clauses may not be the most practical solution for US businesses as they will need to execute a separate model clauses agreement with each of their EU customers.
- Binding Corporate Rules (“BCRs”). If companies are sharing personal data with their US group companies only, they may consider putting in place BCRs. As BCRs can be a time consuming process (normally taking about 18 months) and only apply to group companies, it will not be appropriate for all transatlantic data transfers, but once in place this solution offers more flexibility. Some suppliers may also implement BCR for processors, but again, this will not be a quick fix.
- Anonymising data. It may be worth considering whether it is truly necessary to share the personal data with the US companies. If the same business objective can be achieved through using anonymous data then the data transfer would fall outside the scope of EU data protection laws. It is worth noting that true anonymisation can be quite difficult to achieve, so companies should review the regulators’ guidance about anonymisation to ensure that the personal data has been sufficiently anonymised.
- Consent. Data protection laws do contain various “derogations” that would allow the transfer of personal data from the EU to the US. The most pertinent is if the individual has given his/her unambiguous consent to the transfer of their personal data. It is worth noting that consent has to be specific, informed and freely given.
- Assessments of adequacy. Uniquely, UK data protection laws allows UK data controllers to carry out an assessment of the adequacy of the protection afforded by the non-EEA jurisdiction that is receiving the personal data. This will involve the data controller carrying out and documenting a risk assessment to determine whether the proposed international data transfer will provide an adequate level of protection for the rights of the individuals. As mentioned, this adequacy assessment is only permissible under UK laws, and the assessments may still receive some regulatory scrutiny.
While it is too soon to say how data protection authorities will interpret and act on the decision of the CJEU, it does seem unlikely that the invalidity of Safe Harbor will be immediately enforced. However, EU companies that are in on-going negotiations with US businesses should carefully review the data protection provisions in the contracts and ensure that the transfer of personal data does not depend on Safe Harbor, and all should review and consider their transfers.
The decision of the CJEU may help to expedite the on-going negotiations between the EU Commission and the US Department of Commerce for reforms to the Safe Harbor framework. Given the crippling effect ending Safe Harbor would have on transatlantic businesses, especially those in the tech sector, this case is likely to help accelerate a deal being achieved for Safe Harbor reforms.
Since the CJEU’s ruling earlier this month, the Article 29 Working Party (“WP 29”) has called on Member States and European institutions to negotiate with the US to find alternative data transfer solutions (whether by agreeing a new Safe Harbor framework or otherwise). Discussions will remain at a governmental level for the time being, but WP 29 has emphasised that local data protection authorities must take “all necessary and appropriate actions” – possibly including co-ordinated enforcement – if a solution is not reached by the end of January 2016.
For further information please contact Nicola Fulford.
Comments from Nicola Fulford can also be found in the BBC's report on the Safe Habor ruling.