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ICO publishes its view on the Council's position on the EU General Data Protection Regulation
For nearly twenty years, EU data protection laws have remained fairly static, even in the face of considerable technological advancements, the rise of social media and the “big data” boom.
So in 2012 the European Commission decided to address this gap between the law and technology by publishing new draft general data protection regulation (“GDPR”) to replace the existing Data Protection Directive 1995/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. The original aim of the GDPR was to harmonise data protection procedures and enforcement across all EU member states, as opposed to the current system where each member state has their own data protection regime. Two years after the initial draft, the European Parliament adopted a legislative resolution on the proposal which included a significant number of recommended amendments. To complete the trio, in June this year, the EU's Justice and Home Affairs Council (“Council”) agreed a general approach to the proposed GDPR by the European Commission in January 2012. The text agreed by the Council contains significant differences from the European Parliament’s version and the European Commission’s version, which means that there are now three versions of the GDPR in circulation.
In advance of the completion of the trilogue process, the UK regulator, the Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”), thought it useful to set out its comments on the Council’s amendments to the GDPR. In the main, the key comments and concerns raised by the ICO on 26 August 2015 are:
Too much derogation for member states. The ICO argued that while member states need to be able to determine their own national arrangements for certain data processing activities, there is a risk with the Council’s draft of creating multiple data protection regimes arising as member states are given too great an ability to derogate from the GPDR. Separate arrangements should be kept to a minimum.
Pseudonymisation. The ICO agrees that there should be a single definition of personal data and therefore agrees with the Council’s rejection of a separate category of data for pseudonymous data. The ICO’s view is that pseudonymisation should just be a privacy-enhancing technique. It further emphasised that the pseudonymised data is a relatively low-risk form of personal data and the Regulation should provide an incentive for doing so.
- Incompatible further processing. The Council’s draft introduced a new provision which sets out certain criteria to be taken into account to determine whether a new purpose for processing of personal data is compatible with the one for which the data were originally collected. The ICO is critical of this as it views this provision as confusing. Also the ICO responded that processing of personal data must always have a legal basis and any incompatible processing should be only in accordance with a relevant exemption for the data protection principles. In practice, it would be very difficult for an organisation to evaluate whether or not its legitimate interests override those of the individual and whether or not the incompatible processing is permitted.
- Children’s consent. The ICO did not agree with the Council’s decision to remove the definition of “child”, which had been defined an individuals under the age of 13. Having no definition makes it difficult for data controllers to know when the provisions relating to children’s data applies.
- Transparency. The ICO welcomes the requirement to provide the fair processing information to individuals in clear and plan language. However the requirements of the GDPR are framed like a classical privacy notice, just with more detailed requirements. The ICO feels that this doesn’t encourage businesses to find innovative ways of explaining their data processing techniques to individuals.
- Profiling. The ICO supports reference to “significantly affects” and so it affirms the Council’s position that data subjects can only object to decisions based solely on automated processing where it significantly affects the data subject. This would essentially allow for low-risk profiling, like behavioural advertising. The ICO disagreed with the Council’s requirement to have a “human intervention safeguard” as the ICO viewed this as impractical, especially for the delivery of real time advertising.
- Records. The ICO has expressed concern that the requirement for businesses to maintain records of their processing activities will be unnecessarily burdensome on small and medium sized business. Instead it would prefer that national authorities produced guidance about what records are to be maintained by different types of businesses.
- Breach notification. The ICO expressed concern that it would receive a large number of notifications for trivial or inconsequential data breaches and therefore it welcome the reference to “high risk breaches”
- Data protection officer. The ICO prefers the flexibility proposed by the Council – namely that each member state is free to determine whether to make appointment of a mandatory data protection officer a compulsory requirement. The ICO feels that the list of skills and expertise for the data protection officer listed in the original Commission draft of GDPR was excessive and did not reflect how businesses managed data protection in practice.
- Lead supervisory authority. The ICO was particularly critical of the provisions detailing data protection supervisory authorities and labelled these as “confusing and overly complex”. The ICO’s view is that local data protection authorities should continue to deal with matters on a local basis (as is the current situation). ICO was concerned that the role of the lead supervisory authority wasn’t clearly defined. ICO did not like the concept that the lead supervisory authority needs the involvement of other supervisory authorities or the European Data Protection Board when addressing international data processing. Additionally the ICO viewed that the receipt of a “relevant and reasoned objection” was too low a threshold to trigger the consistency mechanism and thus require the involvement of other supervisory authorities.
- Fines. The ICO wasn’t happy with the three tier fine system and believed that it shows a lack of flexibility and could result in unfair outcomes. So a relatively minor breach (like failing to designate a “representative”) could result in the highest fine, while breaches relating to basic individual rights fall within the lowest fine tier. ICO would prefer to have single list of breaches that could attract a fine.
As we have come to expect, the ICO is advocating a more risk-based approach with more flexibility for national data protection authorities to implement and enforce new rules. However this increased flexibility is at odds with the original objective of GDPR to ensure that data protection laws were harmonised across all member states. It also remains to be seen to what extent the Council’s views prevail in the trilogue negotiations over differing views of the Commission and Parliament representatives, although it seems there has been some compromise from all sides so far.
For further information please contact Nicola Fulford.