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The 'bring your own device to work' challenge
According to a report by YouGov, 65% of companies currently allow employees to bring their own devices to work but only a quarter said that their organisation has a formal ‘bring your own device’ (BYOD) policy in place. It can be challenging to match what occurs in practice with an underlying policy, but the current disconnect can raise significant issues for employers. We’ve outlined some of the key issues and ways to deal with them below:
- Who owns the device?
A personal device used by an employee for work purposes is still owned by the employee and not the business. This inevitably means less control for an employer over a personal device than it would have over its own property. A company nevertheless has to remain in control of data for which it is responsible, notwithstanding the fact that the device is owned by the employee, so any BYOD policy should state that the contents of an employer’s system and any company data remain the property of the company, regardless of who owns the personal device.
- How can your business ensure compliance with data protection legislation?
As mentioned above, although a personal device is owned by an employee, the company will still be considered the data controller of personal data belonging to the company which is held on the device pursuant to the Data Protection Act 1998 (the ‘DPA’)). Therefore any company operating a BYOD policy will need to ensure that all processing of personal data on its employees’ personal devices for business purposes remains in compliance with the DPA. The key to ensuring this is to put in place appropriate security measures to prevent personal data from being accidentally or deliberately compromised. The Information Commissioner’s Office has provided some guidance to UK employers to ensure that their BYOD policies comply with the DPA, including recommended security measures. We have listed some recommended security measures below.
- What are appropriate security measures?
Even though an employee’s personal device is not owned by the business, an employer will nevertheless want to protect confidential company data stored on that device and to ensure that any processing of data complies with the DPA. A BYOD policy can be a helpful way to do this by putting in place appropriate security measures such as:
- pre-approval of a personal device and ability to withdrawal such permission;
- a list of appropriate uses;
- a restriction on what types of data can be stored on personal devices;
- a requirement to install specific anti-virus or anti-malware software;
- a requirement to use a strong password (and guidance on appropriate passwords);
- a prohibition on the use of the device by anyone not pre-approved by the employer, including friends and family;
- stating that disciplinary action will be taken if the BYOD policy isn’t complied with;
- a prohibition on backing up a device to cloud based storage;
- a requirement to encrypt data;
- a requirement to implement automatic deletion of data or automatic locking of a personal device if its password is incorrectly entered too many times or it remains inactive for a certain period of time;
- a prohibition on the installation of unapproved apps; and
- a right for the employer to remotely wipe the device.
Remote wiping of personal devices
Remote wiping of personal devices is likely to be the security measure that causes the most friction with employees because of the risk that their personal data will also be deleted. However, it can be the most powerful tool at a company’s disposal in the event of loss or theft, for departing employees or in cases of suspected breaches of security or confidentiality. In order to make this kind of measure more palatable for to employees, we recommend that a BYOD policy includes an explanation that the company does not intend to, and will use reasonable efforts not to, wipe data that is strictly personal in nature. That said, employees should be made aware that an employer may not be able to distinguish between company and personal data in all circumstances.
- How can you monitor the use of personal devices?
Given the increased security risks that the use of a personal device brings, most employers will want the right to monitor how employees are using their personal devices. It is not possible for a company to have an unlimited right to monitor any and all activity on a personal device, however a BYOD policy can include a right to monitor activity to the extent permitted by law and for legitimate business purposes. A BYOD policy should manage employees’ expectations of privacy when they use their personal devices for work purposes and make the employer’s reasons for monitoring clear, e.g. to protect company data and to prevent misuse of the device.
- What about loss and theft?
One of the main risks an employer takes by allowing its employees to bring their own device to work is that the device, along with confidential company information, is lost or stolen during the employee’s personal time. A BYOD policy should include, as a minimum, reporting procedures in the event of loss or theft and preferably a requirement for location tracking and a right for the business to remotely wipe the device (for more on this see above).
- Who bears the cost?
This is entirely up to the company. A BYOD policy can state that the company will bear no costs at all, only bear the cost of a certain ‘shopping list’ of items (e.g. technical and repair costs), all costs connected to business use or even a fixed monthly contribution for use of the device. The key here is that without a formal policy, the level of contribution can be disputed by employees.
- What if an employee doesn’t like the policy?
Given that certain elements of BYOD policies are likely to be controversial (such as remote wiping) we recommend that no BYOD policy is stated to be mandatory, rather employees should be given a choice whether or not to use their own devices and, if they choose to do so, make any such use conditional upon their agreement to a BYOD policy.
So is it worth the hassle?
Despite the risks outlined above, allowing employees to bring their own device to work can bring a number of benefits. Employers are under increasing pressure to keep up with technological advances and allowing employees to use their own state of the art devices is a good way to keep up with the latest trends. Allowing employees to use their own devices can not only improve morale and job satisfaction but can also increase flexibility and productivity in the workplace and reduce overheads when employees invest in their own devices.
If a BYOD policy is too restrictive, it is likely to discourage employees from using their own devices and prevent businesses from reaping the benefits that a well worded BYOD policy can bring. The challenge employers face is to introduce a BYOD policy which strikes the right balance between flexibility for its employees and protecting its business interests.